Industrial Agriculture . [6] A big component is monocultural growing of the same crop in the same large field. Food security has its focus on the availability of nutrition for a population. Furthermore, adopting a nutrient-dense “energy-efficient” diet that included wholesome plant foods dropped energy use as measured in British thermal units (BTUs) by 74% compared to the baseline diet that reflected what the average American eats (Canning et al., 2017). Microbial isolates listed for abiotic stress tolerance, Ned Mitenius, ... Frank F. Busta, in Food Safety Management, 2014. Residue management practices and tillage affect the water holding capacity of soil, its physical properties, temperature, and microbial activity. shellfish) aquaculture to create balanced systems for environmental sustainability (biomitigation), economic stability (product diversification and risk reduction) and social acceptability (better management practices).[20]. These goals have been defined by a variety of disciplines and may be looked at from the vantage point of the farmer or the consumer. The identification of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus (referred to by the acronym NPK) as critical factors in plant growth led to the manufacture of synthetic fertilizers, making possible more intensive types of agriculture. Residents near such farms report nuisances such as unpleasant smells and flies, as well as adverse health effects. parathion), carbamates, pyrethroids (e.g. To avoid the laborious task of manuring soils to supply nutrients, inorganic fertilizers, such as superphosphates, came into use as early as the 1840s. Agriculture began about 10,000 years ago, when a weather climate enabled human to plant seed and raise lives. Further, industrial agriculture is not some single indivisible thing, but instead is composed of numerous separate elements, each of which can be modified, and in fact is modified in response to market conditions, government regulation, and scientific advances. Withgott, J., We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Integrated pest management programmes that combine a set of measures, including preventive practices, monitoring of pest populations, mechanic and biological control, and responsible insecticide treatment, gain increasing acceptance. Industrial Farming, Today. Industrial agriculture treats farmed products in terms of minimizing inputs and maximizing outputs at every stage from the natural resources of sun, land and water to the consumer which results in a vertically integrated industry that genetically manipulates crops and livestock; and processes, packages, and markets in whatever way generates maximum return on investment creating convenience foods many customers will pay a premium for. IR8, the first widely implemented HYV rice to be developed by IRRI, was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named “Peta” and a Chinese variety named “Dee Geo Woo Gen.”. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. Endangered species such as the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), tapir (Tapirus indicus) ,and clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) have not been recorded in oil palm plantations; and most mammals prefer marginal and heavily degraded lands (e.g., shrublands) to oil palm (Maddox et al., 2007). A lagoon that burst in 1995 released 25 million gallons of nitrous sludge in North Carolina's New River. Its hallmarks are mechanization and reliance on inputs like nitrogen fertilizers, pesticides and intensive irrigation. [8] He writes: "For the sake of the environment, we had better hope those hogs are raised in big, efficient confinement systems. Testimony by Leland Swenson, president of the U.S. National Farmers' Union, before the House Judiciary Committee, September 12, 2000. A consumer backlash against food sold for taste, convenience, and profit rather than nutrition and other values (e.g. Groups like the Food Trust (Philadelphia, Pa.) have pioneered CSAs and other innovations include local farmers' markets, urban community gardens and farms, schoolyard gardens, and farm-to-school and farm-to-campus programs that provide students with locally grown food while offering local farms a reliable market for their crops. The agriculture industry is the sector of the economy that produces livestock, poultry, fish and crops. DDT, aldrin, chlordane, mirex) under UN's Stockholm convention, which is in force since 2004. Rao, in Climate Vulnerability, 2013. Industrial agriculture is the primary system for food production in the United States. The large concentration of animals, animal waste, and dead animals in a small space poses ethical issues. Weed control. U.S. Agriculture in the Twentieth Century. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary The discovery of vitamins and their role in animal nutrition, in the first two decades of the 20th century, led to vitamin supplements, which in the 1920s allowed certain livestock to be raised i… Indeed, thanks to the widespread use of DDT, malaria disease could be successfully eliminated in several regions of the world (at least for few decades, reviewed in Hemingway and Ranson, 2000; Woodwell et al., 1971). Office of Technology Assessment conducted by the UC Davis Macrosocial Accounting Project The discovery of vitamins and their role in animal nutrition, in the first two decades of the twentieth century, led to vitamin supplements, which in the 1920s allowed certain livestock to be raised indoors, reducing their exposure to adverse natural elements. The identification of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus (referred to by the acronym NPK) as critical factors in plant growth led to the manufacture of synthetic fertilizers, making possible more intensive types of agriculture. That is, landscape management should not be optimized based on achieving the highest efficiency and stability; instead, the goal should be to optimize for sufficient diversity, variability, and adaptability for greater landscape resilience. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Zertuche-Gonzalez, C. Yarish, and C. Neefus, Integrating seaweeds into marine aquaculture systems: a key toward sustainability. To make it sustainable, ecofriendly approaches, such as no-till, cover cropping, growing more genetically diverse crops, crop rotation, the use of organic fertilizers and integrated pest management strategies are becoming more relied upon. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Dennis Avery, "Big Hog Farms Help the Environment.". So the question then becomes for each specific element that goes into an industrial agriculture method or technique or process: What bad side effects are bad enough that the financial gain and good side effects are outweighed? One of the earliest synthesised insecticides and probably the most famous is DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, synthesis in 1874). [12][13] Current industrial agriculture practices are temporarily increasing the carrying capacity of the Earth for humans while slowly destroying the long term carrying capacity of the earth for humans necessitating a shift to a sustainable agriculture form of industrial agriculture. Agricultural production across the world doubled four times between 1820 and 1975[1] to feed a global population of one billion human beings in 1800 and 6.5 billion in 2002. In meat production, methods are also sometimes employed to control undesirable behaviors often related to stresses of being confined in restricted areas with other animals. The projects within the Green Revolution spread technologies that had already existed, but had not been widely used outside of industrialized nations. Industrial or intensive agriculture is distinguished from traditional agriculture by a high ratio of inputs to land area, and is also characterized by a reduction in fallow periods, in order to maximize crop yields. DDT), organophosphates (e.g. The impact of industrial agriculture (3) Global food production for crops and livestock has steadily increased over the last 50 years. In the absence of these inputs, traditional varieties may outperform HYVs. Between 1930 and 2000 U.S. agricultural productivity (output divided by all inputs) rose by an average of about 2 percent annually causing food prices paid by consumers to decrease. But other adverse effects are showing up within agricultural production systems—for example, the rapidly developing resistance among pests is rendering our arsenal of herbicides and insecticides increasingly ineffective. For the next 150 years, industrial agriculture would expand dramatically, but so would countercurrents stressing the need to maintain a holistic view of farm ecology – the complex relationships between plants, animals, soils, water, and human communities. One may distinguish between naturally occurring insecticides, so-called botanicals such as nicotine, pyrethrum, toxins of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i. There's no reason Industrial Agriculture. However, as some of the unintended ill consequences of industrial farming technologies came to light, the principles of ‘organic’ farming became more widely known and practiced. The impact of industrial agriculture (2) Increased yields from plants and animals as a result of fertilisers, hormones and genetics. The birth of industrial agriculture more or less coincides with that of the Industrial Revolution in general. For example, the ten million hogs in North Carolina generate 19 million tons of waste per year. Two key features to restore are (1) structural and functional diversity, which in turn enhances the adaptive capacity of a system when confronted with low-probability high-consequence disturbances (e.g., droughts, floods) and (2) adaptive management, in which managers are flexible and able to cope with system diversity (e.g., diverse crops rather than monoculture cropping, with diverse management practices). The modern industrial agriculture and vector control programmes for public health purposes have a great need for chemical insecticides to control manifold insect pests and disease carriers (Davis, 2017). These animals are typically cows, hogs, turkeys, or chickens. The major challenges and issues faced by society concerning industrial agriculture include: An example of industrial agriculture providing cheap and plentiful food is the U.S.'s "most successful program of agricultural development of any country in the world." Modern industrial agriculture is based on maximizing economic returns through increased crop yields and attempts to minimize risks of crop losses. Industrial agriculture is a kind of agriculture using intensively industry. Different interest groups not only reach different conclusions on this, but also recommend differing solutions, which then become factors in changing both market conditions and government regulations.[12][13]. It is also a significant sector of the economy that includes a large number of small businesses.The following are common components of the agriculture industry. With the availability of molecular genetics in Arabidopsis and rice the mutant genes responsible (reduced height (rht), gibberellin insensitive (gai1) and slender rice (slr1)) have been cloned and identified as cellular signaling components of gibberellic acid, a phytohormone involved in regulating stem growth via its effect on cell division. Food security means physical and economic access to food that meet people's dietary needs as well as their food preferences. Nitrogen compounds from the Midwest, for example, travel down the Mississippi to degrade coastal fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico. These operations were designated as CAFOs and subject to special anti-pollution regulation. Follow-up studies proved the high persistence of DDT in the environment (reviewed in Woodwell et al., 1971). ), and various plant-based essential oils; and chemical (often synthetic) insecticides such as chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. The U.S. federal government acknowledges the waste disposal issue and requires that animal waste be stored in lagoons. L.H. Industrial agriculture includes the raising of millions of farm animals in unnatural conditions. It is generally accepted that industrial agriculture that uses large swathes of monocultures, tillage, and injudicious application of inorganic fertilizers is unsustainable. Each of these characteristics of an industrialized agricultural system managed for efficiency have significant implications for sensitive aquatic ecosystems, which are now much more vulnerable to shifts in hydroclimatic forcing. BSE Chemical-industrialized farming isn't feeding the world, and is creating huge ecological/social issues in the process. Rodale Institute. "[7], The British agricultural revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. Norin 10 wheat, a variety developed by Orville Vogel from Japanese dwarf wheat varieties, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars. As an adjective industrial is of or relating to industry, notably manufacturing. This is a vital industry that is important to the food security of every nation and region. The heated public debate about pesticides and the consequential foundation of environmental agencies in several countries finally led to the ban of initially 12 persistent organic pollutants (the so-called dirty dozen, including many insecticides of the first generation, i.e. Around the country, other groups such as Appalachian Center for Economic Networks (Athens, Ohio) are providing commercial-scale kitchens and business incubators to spur locally based food businesses that rely on locally grown food. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified certain animal feeding operations, along with many other types of industry, as point source polluters of groundwater. what is Industrial Agriculture? It doubled between 1820 and 1920; between 1920 and 1950; between 1950 and 1965; and again between 1965 and 1975. Developments in shipping networks and technology have made long-distance distribution of agricultural produce feasible. industrial agriculture definition in English dictionary, industrial agriculture meaning, synonyms, see also 'industrial action',industrial archaeology',industrial democracy',industrial design'. Industrial animal agriculture is a tremendous threat to clean air and water and a healthy environment more broadly. Environmental costs include the degradation of groundwater, surface water, soils, and biologic diversity. Gestation crate This includes produce, livestock, flowers, lumber and harvesting plants to sell.The agricultural industry is one of the oldest in the world, dating back thousands of years. Because large numbers of animals are confined in a small space, any disease would spread quickly, and so antibiotics are used preventively. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates “that a total of 925 million people are undernourished in 2010” with “developing countries account[ing] for 98 percent of the world’s undernourished people.” Many populations (nations, regions or people) have an insufficient supply of food, and they are “Food Insecure.” Populations with sufficient supplies of food have “Food Security.” This problem is projected to increase due to population growth, climate change and related factors (FAO, 2010). The Conditions of Agricultural Growth. From 1945 onwards, DDT was extensively used by farmers and from 1955, by public health managers in order to control malaria. concluded that industrial agriculture is associated with substantial deterioration of human living conditions in nearby rural communities.[16]. Industrial agriculture, which is typified by the highly productive commer- cial agricultural system in the United States, is important to understand because it produces most of the world’s food and fiber. The CDC has identified a number of pollutants associated with the discharge of animal waste into rivers and lakes, and into the air. Table 3.1. Agricultural industrialization supported by new technology is important with increasing size of farms driven by consumer needs. Veal crates Ronald L. Plain, "Trends in U.S. Swine Industry," (U.S. Meat Export Federation Conference, 1997). Monoculture results in economies of scale that can reduce production costs and as … Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is a practice in which the by-products (wastes) from one species are recycled to become inputs (fertilizers, food) for another. The industrialization of agriculture is destroying its natural and human resources. The idea and practice of sustainable agriculture has arisen in response to the problems of industrial agriculture. Some authors predict a bright future for biopesticides such as botanical insecticides (e.g. However, managing for landscape resilience under the uncertainties of future climate is a major challenge. The designation "confined animal feeding operation" in the U.S. resulted from that country's 1972 Federal Clean Water Act, which was enacted to protect and restore lakes and rivers to a "fishable, swimmable" quality. Yes, industrial agriculture may be a source of cheap animal products, but it is obviously detrimental to the ecosystem. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article These technologies included pesticides, irrigation projects, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. You may not consider plants when thinking about extinctions, but it is a very real and urgent concern, with one in eight plants facing extinction. The success of modern U.S. farming is a result of industrial agriculture. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. All About Organics. Most pesticides do not reach the target organism but enter the environment where they may cause direct and indirect effects in nontarget species. 2010). EU Scientists Confirm Health Risks of Growth Hormones in Meat, Fact Sheet #1: A Brief History and Background of the EPA CAFO Rule, Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, Large-Scale Dairies and Their Neighbors: A Case Study of the Perceived Risk in Two Counties, Inside the California Egg Industry: An Undercover Investigation, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Industrial_agriculture&oldid=1009450, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, The contribution to our economy on many levels, from growers to harvesters to processors to sellers, Cleanup of surface and groundwater polluted with animal waste, Increased ozone pollution and global warming from heavy use of fossil fuels, 3,000 years ago primitive agriculture fed 60 million people, 300 years ago intensive agriculture fed 600 million people. The challenges and issues of industrial agriculture for global and local society, for the industrial agriculture industry, for the individual industrial agriculture farm, and for animal rights include the costs and benefits of both current practices and proposed changes to those practices. The technology-driven corporate industrial model of farming remains dominant today, but energy, chemicals, and large-scale equipment have proven expensive to supply and consequently, the farm economy has been badly depressed in recent years. Risk avoidance and efficiency maximization management strategies may increase the stability and predictability of complex systems, but decreased diversity and adaptive capacity make such engineered systems more vulnerable to unforeseen ‘shocks’ from external drivers. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, Previous (Industrial Workers of the World), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Maryland Hog Farm Causes Problems Raised Nationwide. The agriculture industry involves anything that is grown or raised for human use. Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities. Industrial agriculture is all about controlling nature, curating the land for human use, and choosing which plants are valuable. Industrial agriculture has become an increasing threat of forests and biodiversity across the tropics (Rudel et al., 2009a, b). Fed aquaculture (e.g. If you are unsure, you should try to clarify the local context of the term. Currently, Indonesia and Malaysia produce 170 million metric tons of oil palm fruits each year, which accounts for 80% of the global production (FAO, 2011). [2] The number of farms has also decreased, and their ownership is more concentrated. [3] In 1967, there were one million pig farms in America; as of 2002, there were 114,000,[4][5] with 80 million pigs (out of 95 million) killed each year on factory farms, according to the U.S. National Pork Producers Council. July 30, 2008. Managing for efficiency has caused the loss of the natural resilience of landscapes, and therefore the potential for collapse of ecosystem structure and function is increased under some climate change scenarios. They include innovation in agricultural machinery and farming methods, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, the creation of new markets for consumption, the application of patent protection to genetic information, and global trade. The aim of the operation is to produce as much meat, eggs, or milk at the lowest possible cost. Note: Some documents may use the term food security to describe measures to reduce the risk of intentional contamination. Industrial agriculture has also impacted human society in a variety of other ways and has had major impacts on the environment, many of which are harmful. Industrial agriculture is a form of modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops. In public health, the One Health concept focusing on both, the health of humans and ecosystems, is currently spreading and one may expect a rise of local, integrative, and interdisciplinary vector prevention and control strategies, which may result in a reduced usage of insecticides. Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one or more ways. Goodland, Robert, Herman E. Daly, and Salah El Serafy (eds.). Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. Industrial agriculture uses huge amounts of water, energy, and industrial chemicals; increasing pollution in the arable land, useable water and atmosphere. Nevertheless, studies consistently showed a dominance of nonforest invertebrate species in oil palm plantations (Danielsen et al., 2008). Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Furthermore, an antipesticide movement developed in the 1960s after Silent Spring sounded the alarm about long-lived chlorinated compounds. Crop rotation In the U.S., four companies kill 81 percent of cows, 73 percent of sheep, 57 percent of pigs, and produce 50 percent of chickens, cited as an example of "vertical integration" by the president of the U.S. National Farmers' Union. The impacts of industrial agriculture on invertebrates are more variable compared with vertebrates (Fitzherbert et al., 2008). Environmental science In recent decades, historians cited four key changes in agricultural practices, enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation, and selective breeding, and gave credit to a relatively few individuals.[9][10][11]. They may thereby disrupt plant pollination and pose a risk to the sustainability of apiculture and finally agriculture (EFSA, 2012). [7] He told the College of Natural Resources at the University of California, Berkeley that three billion pigs will thereafter be needed annually to meet demand. This pursuit of efficiency in agricultural landscapes has contributed to the loss of natural diversity and heterogeneity within the landscapes, causing functional homogeneity to emerge (Basu et al. Industrial agriculture is currently the dominant food production system in the United States. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_0',162,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_1',162,'0','1'])); According to Denis Avery of the agribusiness funded Hudson Institute, Asia increased its consumption of pork by 18 million tons in the 1990s. In the 1930s, 24 percent of the American population worked in agriculture compared to 1.5 percent in 2002; in 1940, each farm worker supplied 11 consumers, whereas in 2002, each worker supplied 90 consumers. While the point of industrial agriculture is lower cost products to create greater productivity thus a higher standard of living as measured by available goods and services, industrial methods have side effects both good and bad. Matthew Scully. Insecticides are intensively used to combat insect pests, such as fruit and corn borers (e.g. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. Such strategies will certainly include an integrated insecticide resistance management, with focus on planned and reduced usage of insecticide products by private and public consumers (Roush and Tabashnik, 1990; WHO, 2012). Weight gain is encouraged by the provision of plentiful supplies of food to animals breed for weight gain. (Shiva et al., 2017; Neff et al., 2011). The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture announced ‘the zero-growth plans to 2020 for the application of chemical pesticides and fertilizers’ on 18 March 2015. How this came about is not entirely clear. Although much of biodiversity loss is a secondary result of farming techniques (think: habitat loss or unintended chemical runoff), plants are often eradicated on purpose (think: weeds). However, the design of environmentally harmless synthetic insecticides is still far from perfect, as substantiated by the case of the newest class of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. Advocates of industrial agriculture would say that the technologies of bioengineering, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides can produce more food more cheaply and solve the world’s hunger problems indefinitely. [2] During the same period, the number of people involved in farming dropped as the process became more automated. [2] According to the Worldwatch Institute, 74 percent of the world's poultry, 43 percent of beef, and 68 percent of eggs are produced this way. "[15], A study done for the US. Milkweed is often killed with herbicides or mowed away from hedgerows and roadsides (Green America, 2018). The Industrial Revolution after the late 18th cent. by Greg Bowman . Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Each week during the growing season, each shareholder is entitled to a basket of produce from the CSA farm they support. In the United States, fossil fuel and the energy used by the food system is substantial (Canning et al., 2017). Industrial agriculture is all about controlling nature, curating the land for human use, and choosing which plants are valuable. Intensive agriculture, also known as intensive farming and industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture, both of crop plants and of animals, with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area. The distinctive characteristics of such farms is the concentration of livestock in a given space. Organic methods rely on naturally occurring biological processes, which often take place over extended periods of time, and a holistic approach; while chemical-based farming focuses on immediate, isolated effects and reductionist strategies. 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